In the early 1990s, the government of Vietnam has launched Poverty Reduction Program with many national policies in the aim of addressing the poverty, including immigrants in the context of urbanization. However, in fact many poor people with specific legal status of residence, unstable jobs, etc … were difficult in accessing urban services and preferential policies.
The transformation process in the role of Southeast Asia countries has put Vietnam into a strategic position with opened trade and proactive policy of international integration. The formation and development of industrial parks not only in two special cities, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City but also in many other urban areas in Vietnam have led to a growing flow of migrants from rural areas to cities, creating significant pressure on the provision of urban services, involved social issues and simultaneously increase the proportion of urban poor, though, in the view of society, immigrants are force who significantly contribute to the economic growth and success of VN.
However, the urban poor also includes poor local people with special difficulties such as elderly people, disabled people, families with many young children were, low educated and non skilled ones, freelancers, people who run of small business, ordinary labors who have precarious income.
According to the Vietnam Development Report 2006, based on data from Survey of households’ living standard of Vietnam (VHLSS), the proportion of urban poor local people alone, not counting immigrants accounted for 3.9%.
After established, since 1996, Enda Vietnam with financial support of oversea organizations such as Novib, Cordaid, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Asia Urbs, some of urban poor based projects have been implemented, solving maintaining problems in urbanization process through large ranges of activities such as setting up community development funds, housing and resettlement for immigrations and policy supporting for urban immigration.